Friday, May 22, 2020

Principles Discrimination and Social Care Essay - 1667 Words

Principles in Health amp; Social Care! In this part of my assignment I have been asked to explain own role, responsibilities, accountabilities and duties in the context of working with those within and outside the health and social care workplace, I have to evaluate my own contribution to the development and implementation of health and social care organisational policy and to make recommendations to develop my own contributions to meeting good practice requirements. Stress is defined as the â€Å"non specific response of the body to any demand for change†. It was coined by Hans Selye in 1936. A highly subjective phenomenon. There are many signs of having/getting stress; Physical, Psychological, Behavioural and Emotional. Physical Signs†¦show more content†¦According to the Race Relations (NI) Order 1997, discrimination is defined as â€Å"the unfair treatment of a person based on prejudice and intolerance. It is attitudes, values and prejudices translated into behaviour†. This is basically defined as there is unfair/unequal treatment of individuals or groups throughout the setting. Prejudice is an opinion or judgement formed without considering the relevant facts or arguments. It is an attitude that is rigidly and irrationally maintained even in the face of strong contradictory evidence or in the persistent absence of supportive evidence. Stereotyping is also involved in discriminating against people. Stereotyping is what happens when we simplify out prejudgements about a certain groups of people and we subsequently see all member of that group as having certain negative traits. According to Fitzduff, 1988, â€Å"prejudices and stereotyping are mainly concerned with feelings and atti tudes. Feelings are nurtured through our childhood, community and society and are often by the time we reach adulthood†. Thompsons PCS Model is a theory involved with health and social care settings. This helps health and social care workers to understand how inequalities and discrimination feature in the social circumstances of people and in the interaction between service users and health and staff. It has three levels to help health and social care workers. They are Personal (P), Cultural (C) and Society (S). The 3 levels are closelyShow MoreRelatedEssay about Social Care Theory for Practice1426 Words   |  6 PagesSOCIAL CARE THEORY FOR PRACTICE (OUTCOME 1) ASSESSMENT 1 (1500 words approx.) (12th October 2012) Coco J Hendry Page 1 Introduction Page 2 – 5 Assessment Page 6 Conclusion Page 7 Reference/Bibliography 1 The following essay will demonstrate my understanding of the importance and relevance of values to social care by explaining how social care values and principles influence practice. I will then explain what relationship my value base has with social care valuesRead MoreList Key Legislation And Codes Of Practice1177 Words   |  5 Pagesand discrimination in adult social care setting. There are several pieces of legislation that chains the principles of a number of previous acts. The purpose of this act is to join many of the principles of previous pieces of legislation to make it easier to understand, in places to promote equality and reduce the discrimination, such as; †¢ Employment Equality Regulations 2003 †¢ Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 †¢ The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 †¢ The Disability Discrimination ActRead MoreTraditional Values Based On His Religious Beliefs As A Priest1448 Words   |  6 PagesIn late 1950s, Biestek (Clifford Burke, 2009) developed traditional values based on his religious beliefs as a priest. Biestek constructed seven points of traditional social work principles. These are as follows: 1. Individualisation of Every Person - treating people as individuals; 2. Purposeful Expression of Feelings - allows individuals to freely voice their thoughts and express their feelings; 3. Controlled Emotional Involvement - showing empathy and professional interest; 4. UnconditionalRead MoreDe Facto Relationships1529 Words   |  7 Pagescommon residence, whether a sexual relationship exists, the degree of financial dependence or independence and any arrangements for financial support between them, ownership and acquisition of property, degree of mutual commitment to a shared life, the care and support of children and the reputation an d public aspects of the relationship. A de facto couple is considered a alternative family relationship as it does not fit the definition of a traditional family unit, known as a ‘nuclear family’. TraditionallyRead MorePersonal and Social Care Values1494 Words   |  6 PagesMy own personal and social care values will influence the provision of care that i will provide within my working role. It will be essential when working with service users that i am aware of my personal feelings, emotions, attitudes, and beliefs. Being aware of these can help minimise the risk of prejudice, discrimination and unfair treatment towards others. I value individualization, being your own person and expressing your feelings, as a care worker it is essential to value individual rightsRead MoreAnalysis Of Arnstein s Model As A Way Of Establishing Service Users1390 Words   |  6 Pagesrange from physical, social, organisational and structural, just to mention a few. A general overview shows that people with physical and mental disabilities or progressive chronic illnesses are the most targeted and isolated in the community due to stigma. This is supported in Adams, et al (2002, p290) stating in part that: ‘Discrimination against disabled people is institutionalised throughout society and welfare provision has compounded rather than alleviated that discrimination’. Adams, et al (2002Read MoreEssay on nvq 2695 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿CU297P/CT297 Principles of Diversity, Equality and Inclusion in Adult Social Care Setting 1.1 Define what is meant by: Diversity Equality Inclusion Discrimination Diversity - is meant by acknowledging that each individual is unique and recognising individual differences, For example culture, ability, gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, or any other individualRead MoreLegal Affairs And Ethics Of Medical Practice Essay1294 Words   |  6 Pagesalso provide you with a knowledge about ethical principles, rules and theories used in Health Care methodology as well as legal patients’ rights. We face and run into moral dilemmas and problems every day during our life. A large amount of books has been written to explain and help understand different ethical theories and consequently assist to solve these dilemmas. In medical practice they also arise very often. How should we apply the principles of ethics with such diverse problems that appearRead MoreUnit 203 Principles of Diversity, Equality and Inclusion in Adult Social Care827 Words   |  4 PagesUnit 203 Principles of diversity, equality and inclusion in adult social care settings. 1.1) * Diversity is essentially another word for different, it recognises that people are different and unique in many ways such as, personal characteristics, background, culture, personality, race, disability, gender, religion, belief, sexual orientation and age. It means recognising and understanding individual’s differences and embracing them, to allow people feel more valued. * Equality means treatingRead Morenvq 3 Principles of diversity, equality and inclusion in adult social care settings789 Words   |  3 PagesPrinciples of diversity, equality and inclusion in adult social care settings 1.1 Explain what is meant by a) Diversity Diversity means varied or different, so in a social care setting the importance of diversity means to recognise and respect the importance of people’s wishes and to treat them as individuals. b) Equality Equality means ensuring that everybody is entitled to equal rights and opportunities and therefore preventing discrimination. c) Inclusion Inclusion means to ensure that

Friday, May 8, 2020

Objectivity and Fieldwork Essay - 1118 Words

Objectivity and Fieldwork Researchers throughout the world most often conduct practical work in a all natural environment outside their laboratory or office in order to experience in firsthand what it is to live outside the society they have been exposed to all their lives, and integrate into another civilization that imposes cultural traditions and policies that the researcher may have never been imposed to in the past. These types of works or studies that ethnographers conduct are called fieldworks; and they help researchers learn the ways and customs of a certain group or kin outside a society. The researcher’s method of fully understanding the culture of the group of individuals they study is by integrating into their assemblage or†¦show more content†¦Being the daughter of an Arab and also of an American; she portrayed herself as being in â€Å"numerous ways culturally more American than an Arabian† individual (Abu-Lughod, 1988:140). Throughout her work, the author makes it clear t hat the factors of being a woman of Arab descent and her positionality had several consequences in the types of research she could perform and the ties and relationships she could build with the members of the Bedouin tribe. The fact that she was a â€Å"Dutiful daughter† doing fieldwork in a segregated society helped her understand the significance of modesty and humility for women in the Bedouin tribe. â€Å"†¦with the contributors to this volume I share the experience of being a woman studying a sex-segregated society. Unlike most of them, I was in the peculiar situation of being neither completely a cultural insider, nor a total outsider.† (Abu-Lughod, 1988:140). Being in a segregated society were male dominance was a basic characteristic of the natives exposed the author to both sides, but mostly to the female’s side, and that is what her research was mostly based on. Being one of the natives benefited her fieldwork, because she had the opportunity to feel and act just as one of them by adapting to their culture. Malinowski on the contrary was more reserved when writing his fieldwork experiences, because he did notShow MoreRelatedEating Christmas in the Kalahari906 Words   |  4 Pagesthe way Japanese people show gratitude. Cultural anthropologist conduct research by doing fieldwork and using its characteristic method called participant observation(Cultural Anthropology pg48) Researchers trained in cultural anthropology use different methods when they study other cultures. Cultural anthropologists often live for months or years with the people they study. This is called fieldwork. The main method of anthropological research involves long-term, direct observation of and participationRead MoreAnthropology : A Study Of Humanity1202 Words   |  5 Pagesholistically, comparatively, and relativistically through fieldwork. The way that anthropologists utilize and integrate each aspect of this methodology allows them to add specificity to this broad topic and to set it uniquely aside from all others. The way that anthropologists conduct research is generally believed to be what sets anthropology aside from all other humanities and hard sciences. Anthropologists hold fast to the emphasis on fieldwork, which is defined as data collection while in contactRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Body Rituals Among The Veldt By Horace Miner964 Words   |  4 Pagesdiversity of cultural customs; and that even if they have not encountered a surprising exotic custom they should be aware that it might exist in an unidentified tribe. In a way it helps desensitize to avoid cultural shock for when an anthropologist does fieldwork. This does not only help anthropologist, but individuals in general. The desensitization of American culture can be due to media in which outside cultures are portrayed stereotypically. Our stereotype other cultures develops through nurture necessaryRead MoreFlight Transportation Corporation.1183 Words   |  5 Pagesnation at the time, acquired FTC as an audit client in March 1980. Besides Harrington, the audit engagement team assigned to the 1980 and 1981 FTC audits included an audit manager, Gregory Arnott, and three staff auditors. Arnott supervised the fieldwork for both audits. The 1980 FTC audit was the first engagement on which Arnott had served as an audit manager. Audit Theory†¦. In 1980 The company’s president, William Rubin insisted that the audited financial statements be ready for the printerRead MoreCrazy Eddie Case1147 Words   |  5 Pagesvery important part of a successful audit and a crucial standard under GAAS relates to the level of fieldwork an auditor must do. The auditors again did not successfully comply with this standard as well. Sam Antar stated during one of trials that the company used something called â€Å"obstruction by distraction† on the auditors. The company did their very best to distract auditors from their fieldwork by engaging them in plenty of â€Å"small talk† (Antar, 48). The auditors submerged into conversation andRead MoreEngaging The Adult Learner For Adult Learners1028 Words   |  5 Pagesthat encompasses the use of skills to conquer their concentration and interest. The engagement is performed to ensure the adult learners will immediately identify with the information and the objective of the teaching. On ce the identification and objectivity is formed learning is able to proceed. Therefore, the engagement process for adult learners must be unique and display sensitivity in an effort to achieve learning. Moreover, it is necessary for adults to know their efforts put towards lifelongRead MoreSelling Crack : By Philippe Bourgois1866 Words   |  8 Pages24 drug dealers and their families (p.2) and obtained information through means such as â€Å"taped conversations, hundreds of nights in crack houses, †¦ went to parties and intimate reunions† (p.13). This total immersion allowed Bourgois, through his fieldwork, to create relationships which would reveal detailed information about their real life experiences. Through participant observation Bourgois was able to understand the complexities and intricacies of street culture and be sure that the informationRead MoreData Collection Method Participant Observation Essay1503 Words   |  7 Pagessituations using the five senses, providing a written photograph of the situation under study (ERLANDSON, HARRIS, SKIPPER, ALLEN, 1993). DeMUNCK and SOBO (1998) describe participant observation as the primary method used by anthropologists doing fieldwork. Fieldwork involves active looking, improving memory, informal interviewing, writing detailed field notes, and perhaps most importantly, patience (DeWALT DeWALT, 2002, p.vii). Participant observation is the process enabling researchers to learn aboutRead MoreQuantitative And Qualitative Research Methods871 Words   |  4 Pagesassociated with interpretive and critical paradigms. A further assumption is that some critical approaches to research, such as feminism, only use qualitative approaches. In addition, quantitative and qualitative approaches are strongly associated with objectivity (quantitative) and subjectivity (qualitative)†. Quantitative research methods include surveys such as standardized/self-completion questionnaires. Researchers can deliver questionnaires in a range of ways, including, by post, through email, orRead MorePhilosophical Implications of Cultural Relativism4081 Words   |  17 Pagesare ethnocentric when we use our cultural norms to make generalizations about other peoples cultures and customs. Franz Boas argued that any human science had to transcend the ethnocentrism of the scientist. Boas urged to conduct ethnographic fieldwork in order to overcome their ethnocentrism. Boas developed the principle of cultural relativism as a tool for developing non-ethnocentric studies of different societies. Hence in a rapidly changing world society where people are in closer interaction

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Studies on Employee Satisfaction Free Essays

With the increased competition, fast-paced environment and globalization efforts, companies are finding that they need the support of their employees more than ever. However, the new breed of personnel wants more than pay as a benefit. They are increasingly being motivated by other factors such as greater involvement with business decisions. We will write a custom essay sample on Studies on Employee Satisfaction or any similar topic only for you Order Now Recent studies are researching ways that successful organizations are encouraging positive employee morale despite ongoing business changes. Full employee participation is required for any organizational change to succeed. Joint development of programs gives people ownership and the motivation to ensure the support of the change process. At SmithKline Beecham and Levi Strauss, for example, the strategy is view employees as business partners (Reid, 2004, p. 40). Some of the ways that Beecham and Strauss are instituting change include: 1) An emphasis on values as well as goals, since employees want to know how the organization expects to meet the desired results; 2) Along with #1, encourage joint goal setting that leads to greater involvement and dialogue. Joint goal setting can be a powerful motivator (Reid, 2004, p. 40). 3) Support anonymous real-time feedback through the Internet or the traditional suggestion boxes. 4) In tandem with #3, respond to feedback to let employees know their ideas have been heard. 5) Test and reward new ideas and response to challenges; 6) See employee involvement as an ongoing process that builds over time, rather than a one-shot deal; and 7) Continually review the goals established to see what headway is being made and changes needed. Survey employees regularly to measure whether needs are being met and the degree of interest in the company’s success. Employee specialist Joel Schettler also notes the importance of updating training that in many cases still treats personnel as â€Å"grist for the mill† (2003, p. 56). Training programs should be cast as enhancing a right rather than negating a wrong. Employee motivation and incentives and training programs must go hand-in-hand to become an effective tool in today’s environment. Training should also develop teamwork and foster pride in one’s work. Pay-for-performance approaches bring only short-term, skin-deep results. When an employees’ emotional involved, unexpected positive results occur. Arnett (2002, p. 87) stresses that companies are always putting an emphasis on external marketing programs when they should be marketing their internal customers, â€Å"the employees,† as well. He argues that a successful internal-marketing strategy can enhance both job satisfaction, organizational pride and positive employee behavior that is characterized by a commitment to customer service, cooperation with other employees, and to the company. Looking at the research that has thus far been conducted on employee motivation, Arnett (2002, p. 88) says that the effects of employee satisfaction have been researched extensively, but not the effect of pride. In a study, he hypothesized that both job satisfaction and pride are important variables that managers can use to encourage employees to engage in desired behavior. Further, developing a good relationship with employees is a precursor to building a good relationship with customers. Specifically, the study looked at job satisfaction, or an employee’s general affective evaluation of his or her job; pride, an emotion that is crucial to understanding human behavior that is derived from both self-appraisals and others’ opinions and represents a belief that one is competent and viewed positively by others; role clarity, where employees are clear about the scope and responsibilities of their job; a reward system where employees know they will be measure on how well they perform their duties and that positive performance brings rewards; work environment that is pleasing and offers rewarding experiences; managers that provide the proper training, listen to employees and are fair; an organization that promotes its performance to employees so they know they are a part of that performance; and activities that foster positive employee behavior and the well-being of the organization. Arnett (2004) developed a questionnaire that was responded to by 860. The majority of the respondents had been with the organization for between 1 and 5 years, 26 percent had been with the corporation less than one year, and the remaining 3 percent had been with the company for over five years. Most respondents were hourly employees, 9 percent were supervisors, 4 percent were salaried non-management employees, and 4 percent were managers. The results showed that job satisfaction and pride have the desired goal of promoting positive employee behavior. Three factors seem especially critical to building job satisfaction among employees–role clarity, the work environment, and employees’ evaluations of managers’ performance. Employees who believed they had a clear understanding of what it took to do their job were more likely to be satisfied. Therefore, employers should try to ensure that employees have a clear understanding of their responsibilities and expectations. Interestingly, the employees’ evaluation of the reward system did not influence their job satisfaction. However, the researchers feel this is not an indication that employees do not care about the reward systems in their organizations. Instead, it may be an indication that other factors are more important for changing employee behavior. The results do support the proposition that the work environment affects job satisfaction. Therefore, organizations should not focus solely on the guests’ environment, but should also examine that used by their employees as well. Employee evaluations of managers is related positively to job satisfaction, so managers should monitor the perceptions that employees have of the management team and make changes as necessary. In fact, the workers’ evaluation of managers is most important to job satisfaction; role clarity is the next most important, followed by work environment. The study also showed that job satisfaction effected pride positively. Employees who were the most satisfied with their jobs exhibited the most pride in their organizations. Therefore, we suggest that job satisfaction influences employee behavior. Second, it affects positive employee behavior indirectly by encouraging, pride in the organization, which then leads to positive employee behavior. The results support the fact that employees’ evaluation of managers has a positive effect on pride in the organization, as well. The Arnett research concluded that both job satisfaction and pride in the organization are important factors that influence employee behavior. Therefore, organizations that wish to promote positive behavior in their employees should focus on both of these factors. Although many organizations have specific programs and procedures designed to improve employee satisfaction, fewer organizations make a concerted effort to increase employee pride. Our results suggest that more organizations should focus on improving employee pride. What these above studies demonstrate is that if a company wants to encourage positive change and employee behavior, they need to look at other factors than pay and other material incentives. Although these will always continue to part of an employee incentive package, it is also necessary to reward personnel with the knowledge that their feedback and involvement are important to the company’s success. How to cite Studies on Employee Satisfaction, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Tobacco Ads Target Youth Essays - Smoking, Tobacco, Philip Morris

Tobacco Ads Target Youth Everyday 3,000 children start smoking, most them between the ages of 10 and 18. These kids account for 90 percent of all new smokers. In fact, 90 percent of all adult smokers said that they first lit up as teenagers (Roberts). These statistics clearly show that young people are the prime target in the tobacco wars. The cigarette manufacturers may deny it, but advertising and promotion play a vital part in making these facts a reality (Roberts). The kings of these media ploys are Marlboro and Camel. Marlboro uses a fictional western character called The Marlboro Man, while Camel uses Joe Camel, a high-rolling, swinging cartoon character. Joe Camel, the "smooth character" from R.J. Reynolds, who is shown as a dromedary with complete style has been attacked by many Tobacco-Free Kids organizations as a major influence on the children of America. Dr. Lonnie Bristow, AMA (American Medical Association) spokesman, remarks that "to kids, cute cartoon characters mean that the product is harmless, but cigarettes are not harmless. They have to know that their ads are influencing the youth under 18 to begin smoking"(Breo). Researchers at the Medical College of Georgia report that almost as many 6-year olds recognize Joe Camel as know Mickey Mouse (Breo). That is very shocking information for any parent to hear. The industry denies that these symbols target people under 21 and claim that their advertising goal is simply to promote brand switching and loyalty. Many people disagree with this statement such as Illinois Rep. Richard Durbin who states " If we can reduce the number of young smokers, the tobacco companies will be in trouble and they know it "(Roberts). So what do the tobacco companies do to keep their industry alive and well? Seemingly, they go toward a market that is not fully aware of the harm that cigarettes are capable of. U.S. News recently featured a discussion of the smoking issue with 20 teenagers from suburban Baltimore. The group consisted of ten boys and ten girls between the ages of 15 and 17. When asked why they started smoking, they gave two contradictory reasons: They wanted to be a part of a peer group. They also wanted to reach out and rebel at the same time. " When you party, 75 to 90 percent of the kids are smoking. It makes you feel like you belong," says Devon Harris, a senior at Woodlawn High. Teens also think of smoking as a sign of independence. The more authority figures tell them not to smoke, the more likely they are to pick up the habit (Roberts). The surprising thing is that these kids know that they are being influenced by cigarette advertising. If these kids know that this advertising is manipulating them, why do they still keep smoking? The ads are everywhere, especially in teen-oriented magazines, such as Rolling Stone and Spin. The ads also fuel some of the reasons the children gave for starting. They represent rebellion, independence, acceptance and happiness. These are all the things a young person, between childhood and adolescence, needs and desires. This type of advertising, on top of peer pressure, is the mystery behind the rise in adolescent smoking. How do we stop the future of America from smoking? Here are three things that the experts recommend. Try to convince your children that smoking is not cool. Talk to your kids at a young age about the dangers of smoking. Identify family members who smoke and ask them to stop (Thomas). Children are the most valuable commodity we are given in life. Let's try to educate them while they're young to be independent thinkers and to not be swayed by the tobacco companies who are trying to take advantage of their mind and body. --- Works Cited "Bill Clinton vs. Joe Camel." U.S. News & World Report. 2 Sep. 1996: 12. Infotrac. Online. 27 Oct. 1996. "Selling Tobacco to Kids." America. 17 Feb. 1996: 3. Infotrac. Online. 27 Oct. 1996. Roberts, Steven. " Teens on tobacco; kids smoke for reasons all their own." U.S. News & World Report. 18 Apr. 1996: 38. Infotrac. Online. 27 Oct. 1996. Thomas, Roger E. "10 steps to keep the children in your practice nonsmokers." American Family Physician. Aug. 1996:

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Profile of Ernst Stromer the Famous Paleontologist

Profile of Ernst Stromer the Famous Paleontologist Born into an aristocratic German family on 1870, Ernst Stromer von Reichenbach achieved fame shortly before World War I, when he participated in a fossil-hunting expedition to Egypt. His Famous Discovery In the course of a few weeks, from January to February of 1911, Stromer identified and unearthed a series of large bones buried deep in the Egyptian desert, which challenged his paleontological skills (as he wrote in his journal, I don’t know how to conserve such massive species.) After carting the bones back to Germany, he stunned the world by announcing the discovery of a new genus of    sauropod, Aegyptosaurus, and two huge theropods, Carcharodontosaurus and the bigger than a T Rex,  Spinosaurus. Unfortunately, subsequent world events were not kind to Ernst Stromer. All of his hard-won fossils were destroyed during a raid by the Royal Air Force on Munich in 1944, during World War II, and two of his three sons died while serving in the German army. There is a bit of a happy ending, though: his third son, presumed dead, had actually been held a prisoner in the Soviet Union, and he was repatriated to Germany in 1950, two years before his father’s death. Stromer died in 1952.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

William Rehnquist, Conservative Stalwart on the Supreme Court

William Rehnquist, Conservative Stalwart on the Supreme Court William Rehnquist was one of the most influential U.S. Supreme Court justices in modern history, a conservative stalwart who dissented with the majority jurists in the Roe v. Wade opinion legalizing abortion and who built a coalition on the bench who sought to limit the power of the federal government. Rehnquist, an appointee of Republican President Richard M. Nixon who was named chief justice by President Ronald Reagan, served 33 years on the high court before dying at age 80 in September 2005. Rehnquist was a Goldwater Republican whose passions were federalism - limiting congressional power and strengthening state powers - and expression of religion. He argued that just because an action is religiously motivated, does not make it consequence-free for society, and should not make it consequence-free, under societys laws. Rehnquist also voted consistently in support of the death penalty and in opposition to gay rights. He often wrote solo dissents in his early years on the bench. Rehnquist may best be remembered for the 5-4 decision in the 2000 presidential election that stopped the Florida recount and propelled George W. Bush into the White House. He was only the second chief justice to preside over presidential impeachment hearings. Heres a look at Rehnquists biggest opinions on the Supreme Court. Roe v. Wade The courts majority held in 1974 that a woman, with her doctor, could choose abortion in earlier months of pregnancy without legal restriction, based primarily on the right to privacy. Rehnquist wrote  the dissent, in which he noted: I have difficulty in concluding, as the Court does, that the right of privacy is involved in this case. National League of Cities v. Usery Rehnquist wrote the majority opinion in 1976, which invalided federal minimum wage requirements for local and state government employees. This case highlighted the 10th Amendment, which reserves for the states powers not explicitly enumerated elsewhere in the Constitution; this Amendment is the foundation for the states rights movement. Wallace v. Jaffree This 1985 court decision invalided an Alabama law providing a moment for silent prayer in public schools. Rehnquist dissented, contending that the belief that the founders intended to erect a wall of separation between church and state was misguided. Texas v Johnson This 1989 case found flag-burning to be a protected form of political speech under the First Amendment. Rehnquist wrote one of two dissents in this 5-4 decision, saying that the flag is the visible symbol embodying our Nation ... not simply another idea or point of view competing in the marketplace of ideas. United States v. Lopez   Rehnquist wrote the majority opinion in this 1995 case, which declared unconstitutional the Gun Free School Zones Act of 1990. The act gave schools a 1,000-foot gun-free perimeter. Rehnquists ruling states that Congress can regulate only commerce - its channels and instruments as well as substantive actions. Kelo v New London In this controversial 2005 decision, the court expanded the power of the Fifth Amendment, saying that local governments may take property for private use because, in this case, there was a plan that promised jobs and revenue. Sandra Day OConnor wrote for the minority, which included Rehnquist: Under the banner of economic development, all private property is now vulnerable to being taken and transferred to another private owner, so long as it might be upgraded - i.e., given to an owner who will use it in a way that the legislature deems more beneficial to the public - in the process.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

A Discussion of Corporate Tax Evasion and Legal and Ethical Research Paper

A Discussion of Corporate Tax Evasion and Legal and Ethical Considerations - Research Paper Example Firstly,understanding the means by which the tax base exists and funds public goods that benefit each and every citizen is a starting point upon which the reader should consider. Firstly, these tax dollars are ultimately not sent into oblivion to fund pork only pork barrel spending projects that many of the news outlets would have the citizen believe; rather, they are utilized as a means to provide highways, schools, equip law enforcement and firefighters, and provide for the national security of the nation. In such a way, the reader can seek to understand the severe implications of seeking to deprive the system of these funds and the way that it is ultimately reflected back into the community or region in which the corporate entity operates, draws from the labor pool, and provides for the education that it relies upon to recruit talented individuals. Whereas tax evasion is most commonly thought of on a personal basis, the fact of the matter is that personal tax evasion pales in comp arison to the untold millions, billions, even possibly trillions of dollars that go unaccounted for due to intricate accounting mechanisms, offshore accounts, and outright dishonesty with regards to the level of profits that many firms are willing to admit to the government. Although it is not the purpose of this research to identify the core level and underlying reason why this practice is so often engaged and to such a degree, it does not require a great deal of research or analytical thinking to categorize the answer to such a question within the framework of the rational actor approach.Within such a framework, the self interest of profit maximalization and/or greed comes to be seen as the main reason why such a practice is engaged with. (Slemrod 880). One of the most famous and primary ways that corporations seek to shirk their tax burden and responsibility is by utilizing offshore tax havens to hide and/or minimalize their profits (Martinez-Vazquez & Rider 56). This serves two functions. The first is of course to reduce the overall tax burden that will be affected for the fiscal year; whereas the second is to outright hide millions or even hundreds of millions of dollars outside of the purview of the tax system (Tzur 58). Such an approach is utilized by a great many corporate entities within the United States due to the fact that it is not expressly illegal to utilize tax havens as a means of minimizing the total amount of taxes paid. Such a level of tax dodging has meant that firms such as Google and Pfizer have been able to dodge billions in tax bills within just a few years